What are the Different Types of Databases

What are the Different Types of Databases

Types of Databases- A database is a logical collection of computer science and theory data. Data has been formatted and arranged for easy access, searching, management, and updating. According to the requirements of various firms, numerous types of databases are in the sector.

Databases only use in computer science. However, they have been around since before the invention of computers and are widely utilized in society. For example, in Mesopotamia, where the Sumerians of antiquity used clay tablets to record agricultural deals, its traces date back to 4000 BCE.

Different Types of Databases

Over the years, Types of Databases technology has changed. According to the requirements of various firms, numerous types of databases currently use in the sector. To fully educate you on the many types of databases, their benefits, drawbacks, and use cases, let us simplify the classification of databases for you. One cannot overstate the significance of choosing the appropriate database type for their project. The situation frequently determines the best option because the various databases that are accessible each offer unique benefits. To illustrate, consider NoSQL databases. Being ideal for a multitude of activities, it is one of the most well-liked database types in the market right now.

Additionally, it is open source. However, Relational Databases also give you a robust relational model and data consistency. Should you choose one over the other? It is a challenge that frequently comes down to developer taste, but don’t worry—we’re here to help you select a database.

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1. Centralized Database:

A centralized database is maintained, controlled, and accessible from a single location. This database is operated, changed, and prevented from that place. What is this place, you might wonder? Any database system or centralized computer system would be on this site. Of course, it would help if you had an internet connection (LAN, WAN, etc.) to get to the centralized location. Institutions or organizations mostly use the centralized database to maintain the data relevant to their activities. An essential library with a central database of each library at a college or university is an example of a centralized database.


  • Accessing and coordinating data is more straightforward because everything is set aside in one place.
  • The centralized database has just a tiny amount of data redundancy since all the data is set aside in one place.
  • Compared to other available databases, it is more affordable.
  • Better data quality provides, allowing enterprises to set higher data requirements.


  • A centralized database has higher data traffic than other databases.
  • May lose the entire data in the event of a system failure or major breakdown at the centralized system.
  • It isn’t easy to update a system with such an extensive database.

2. Distributed databases:

Unlike centralized databases, distributed databases are made up of numerous databases linked and dispersed over various physical locations. Data that physically store in many sites can be managed separately from one another. A computer network connects several physical areas. H Base, Apache Cassandra, Ignite, and other examples of distributed databases are available.

Homogeneous Distribute Database: A database system that utilizes hardware in the process and operating system applications to the database process.

Heterogeneous Distributed Database: Database systems that utilize numerous application approaches, operating systems, and hardware components.


  • Since the data is already dispersed among numerous sites physically, we may extend this kind of database.
  • From various computer networks, the dispersed database is easily accessible.
  • This database has higher security compared to centralize databases.


  • Because of its complexity, this database is costly and challenging to manage.
  • Since the type of database is disperse over numerous physical places, giving the user, a consistent view is challenging.
  1. Relational databases:

A database that stores and makes related data points accessible. Relational databases stay built upon the relational concept. It is an easy and transparent way to display data in tables. This kind of database stores information as a table made up of concatenated rows (also known as tuples) and columns (also known as attributes) (relation).

RDBMS and ACID properties:

  • Relational database transactions are definite by four critical characteristics known as ACID, or atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.
  • Atomicity defines all components that go into a complete database transaction.
  • Consistency is the requirement for maintaining the integrity of data points following a transaction.
  • Isolation removes the effects of a transaction from others until it is loyal, reducing the chance of misunderstanding.
  • Durability ensures that data changes become irreversible after a transaction is loyal.

The relational model: The relational model gives an application a consistent way to describe and query data. The relational paradigm has the benefit of enabling Structure Query Language (SQL) to be used to write and query data in a database (SQL). SQL, a relational algebra-based query language, is use to increase the effectiveness of all database queries.


Relational model and data integrity The relational paradigm’s advantage is data consistency between applications and database copies (called instances). For example, you anticipate that when you purchase a shopping app, it will immediately show up in your list of prior investments. Relational databases are excellent in data consistency, ensuring that numerous database instances consistently contain the data enters.


  • Due to the ease, simplicity, and relational structure of data storage, relational databases operate very quickly.
  • The security of relational databases is very high. It is because a relational database has many tables. Hence it is possible to designate specific tables as secret. Tables secured with a username and password will only be accessible to authorize users.
  • This kind of database is relatively straightforward. Processing of queries or a complex structure is not require. Difficult questions are not necessary. A direct SQL query is adequate for handling.


  • A relational database is expensive to create and maintain.
  • Since it works with rows and columns, this database requires a lot of physical capacity.

4. NoSQL Database:

NoSQL is a non-tabular database type. Unlike a relational database, this sort of database stores data differently. Document, key-value, wide-column, and graph data types are the most prevalent ones in NoSQL databases. Because it offers customizable schemas, this database scales well under heavy data loads and user traffic conditions.

NoSQL database characteristics:

Document databases like JSON store data in documents (JavaScript Object Notation). A pair of fields and values make up every document. Standard data types, including characters, numbers, arrays, booleans, and objects, are just a few examples of the various values that can usually be.

Each item in key-value databases has a key and value pair, making them a more straightforward sort of database.

Data is set aside in tables, rows, and dynamic columns in wide-column databases.

In nodes and edges, data is set aside in graph databases. In contrast to bites, which contain information about the connections between nodes, nodes often store data points such as individuals, locations, or objects.

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  • As we need not keep data organized, productivity in application development is increasing.
  • It is an excellent choice for handling and managing large amounts of data.
  • It is very expandable.
  • Key-value pairs enable quick access to database data.


Any set of uniform rules does not govern NoSQL databases. Various NoSQL products have vastly different database designs and query languages. In contrast to conventional SQL databases, this is considerably more obvious in NoSQL databases.

In NoSQL databases, backups are a disadvantage. Some databases, such as MongoDB, offer backup solutions. However, these are still in their infancy compares to typical SQL databases.

5. Cloud Database:

A cloud platform performs and stores data in cloud databases. Many of the features of a conventional database are present, but with the added flexibility of cloud computing. To use the database, users must instal software on a cloud infrastructure. In business, cloud databases are prevalent. A few examples of this kind of database are:

  • Web Services from Amazon (AWS)
  • Windows Azure
  • Autonomous Oracle Database
  • using Google Cloud SQL


Ease of access: Users can access cloud databases almost anywhere using an API or web interface provided by a vendor.

Scalability: Cloud databases may scale their storage capacity in real-time to meet changing demands. Businesses pay for the services that they use.

Disaster recovery: In a natural disaster, equipment malfunction, or power outage, backup copies of data are set aside on remote servers.


Privacy risk: There is always a chance that someone else will gain access to user information. The confidentiality of data will therefore be compromise if data and cloud security are not first-rate.

Dependent on internet access: Cloud computing can only access through the internet. If there is no internet connection at your location or if the internet connection to the cloud provider is down, access to your cloud computing machine automatically terminates.

6. Object-Oriented Database:

An object-oriented database (OOD) deals with sophisticated data objects. This database uses things similar to those used in object-oriented programming languages. Using data objects save in the database with all of their attributes. These entries will remain in the OOD even if the programme you’re running discontinues. When your software starts, it pulls an object and all its properties from the database. The database user is ignorant of how to save and retrieve a complex data item utilizing an OOD.


  • There aren’t any slow “joins” with OODs like with an RDBMS. Instead, you get quicker queries with complex data.
  • Because the database structure is comparable to programmable objects, the code is easier to read and less taxing on the system.


  • While OOD may be a fantastic option if you’re using an object-oriented programming language, the relative efficiency of straightforward database operations may be inferior to that of an RDBMS.
  • Compared to the expanding web development ecosystem within the RDBMS sector, the documentation and support for the OOD user community are minimal.

7. Hierarchical Database:

It is one of the most traditional data models still in use today. Data is a group of tables that make up a hierarchical relation in a hierarchical model. The information arranges in a tree-like structure, with each record having a parent record and multiple children. While there can be several children in each parent record, there can only be one parent in each kid record.


  • The link between the levels is simple, thanks to the database’s architecture.
  • Data sharing is feasible since every data is set aside in a single database.
  • The hierarchical database model was the first to provide data protection and excellent data security.
  • It delivers strong data integrity because there is always a relationship between a parent and a child.


  • Although simple in idea and design, this database is difficult to implement.
  • Since modifications to remove tables affect the entire database, it is inflexible. For example, unintentionally deleting one segment could result in the elimination of all nodes beneath it.
  • Because there are no established standards for this approach, execution differs from situation to situation.

8. Personal Database:

A local database system is design for just one user to store and manage data from their system.


Fast Processing: Because data is store locally on a computer, it can be handled more reliably and process more quickly.

Security: Because data is set aside on a personal machine, no extra security measures are requires.


It is a form of database that is not scalable to large projects since there is a natural limit to the amount of data that can keep on a single device.


Types of Databases here so many different kinds of databases to choose from the data! We hope that by showing you the variety of options available to you when selecting databases in the current market, we were able to show you how many options there are. All organizations, from tiny startups to vast global conglomerates, require databases on an ongoing basis. The industry’s wide range of possibilities reflects the numerous scenarios in which one can use databases. You were able to decide which one best suits your needs by giving it some careful thought.

Also read: What is a Database? Uses, Types, and Many More

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